Sundarban is the largest mangrove forest in the world. This forest is situated in the Ganges and Brahmaputra estuarine and extends across West Bengal of India. In 1997, the UNESCO was recognized as World Heritage Site. The total area of the Sundarban is 10000 square kilometer (sq km). It's Bangladesh area is about 6,017 square kilometer.
The forest is known as the habitat of numerous species of animals, including the famous Royal Bengal Tiger, various types of birds, Chitraa deer, crocodiles, and snakes. Apart from this, great Sundari and Golpata trees are also found in this forest area. Huge honey is collected from honey bees every year from this forest.
Geographic structure of Sundarban national park: The larger part of this mangrove forest (62%) of the two neighboring countries, Bangladesh and India, is located on the south-west side of Bangladesh. Bay of the South; The boundary between the Baleshwar River and the area of higher cultivation density in the north in the east. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the size of the forest was near twice the present.
Human pressure on the forest gradually shrunk its area. In Bangladesh, its total land area is 4,143 sq km. And the remaining water stream with river and canal is 1,874 square kilometers. Sundarban Rivers mix salt water and sweet water. It is located in Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat, Patuakhali region in Bangladesh.
|Golpata (Nypa fruticans)|
After this report, there have been significant changes in various mangrove species and their classification. Like the forest very rarely has been searched for the calculation of these changes. Grass and shrubs include Shawn, Nolkhagra (pipe reed), Golpata pavement, etc. Kheora refers to the newly formed sludge, and this species is important for wildlife, especially for Chitra deer.
Wildlife/animals in mangrove forest: There is a wide variety of wildlife in the Sundarbans. Hunting is prohibited in some areas. Although it is evident those animal resources in Bangladesh, have decreased in recent times and the mangrove forest is not beyond this. The Sundarbans has survived many species of progeny and other related species.
Among them, tigers and shushuks are being planned. Ecology of the Sundarbans is a fundamental nature and which is a vast place of wild animals. Turtles, lizards, oysters and the Royal Bengal Tiger are among the local species of the Sundarbans.
Various species of deer, buffalo, rhinoceros, and crocodiles have become rare in the Sundarbans since the beginning of the 21st century.
The Sunderbans of Bangladesh are commercially valuable 120 species of fish, 270 species of birds, 42 species of mammals, 35 reptiles and eight amphibian species habitats.
This indicates that there are a large number of species are available in the Bangladesh part of Sundarbans(such as 30 percent reptiles, 37 percent of birds and 37 percent mammals). In the case of bird watching, reading, and research, a paradise for the birds of the Sundarbans.
Royal Bengal Tiger/Sundarbans Tigers: The Royal Bengal Tiger named Sundarbans is a world-famous tiger. According to 2004 estimates, the Sundarbans is home to about 500 Royal Bengal Tigers, which is the single largest part of the cat. But the number of tigers is decreasing day by day. According to a 2011 report, the total number of tigers in the Sundarbans is almost 300. The Wildlife Conservation Committee took various steps to protect them.
It is also important to local people to pray for the God of the tiger for the safe wander in the Sundarban. Since the tiger always attacks from behind, fishers and woodcutters have a mask behind the head. Although the system worked for a short time, the Tigers then understood the tactic and started attacking again.
Why do these Tigers attack people and some of their supposed reasons are:
As the Sundarban is located in the coastal areas, there is relatively salty water here. Tigers drinks fresh water among the other animals here. Some people think that due to the salinity of papaya Pani, tigers are uncomfortable at all times which make them immensely aggressive. It did not solve after making the artificial freshwater lake.
Another possibility is that due to the weather, they have become accustomed to human flesh. Thousands of people died due to the tidal surge in Bangladesh and India. And these molten dead bodies torn by the torrent ate tigers. Due to natural high-low flows and in wet areas, it is difficult for tigers to catch other animals.
There is no scientific research done on the overall fish of the Sundarbans. As a result, there is no data-based information on the present condition of this mangrove forest fish. Some species have been identified which are suitable for people. It is believed that there are about 300 species of fish in the Sundarbans.
Fisheries resources are divided into two parts of the Sundarbans. All fish are white fish; the rest are Bagda, Golda (Pulp) and Kakra (Crab). Kalihangar, Ilsha Kamat, Thotti Kamat, Kanua Kamat are found in the Sundarbans.
Previously they could be found in Khalishpur area, now many have moved south. They have a high prevalence in the Sunderbans. These numbers are deficient; especially the black sharks are very rare now.
At one time the name of the java fish could have been heard, they were 55 centimeters long. Now loaded up. Delicious fish like Payratoli or Chitra are also less in number now. The most familiar fish in Sundarbans is Parshe fish. The fish can be found in large quantities throughout the jungle, and they are up to 16 cm long in size.
Kharshulla or Khalla are delicious fish, but many of them are not seen anymore in the rivers or canals. Kanmagur is the deadly fish, and it has deadly poison. Though some of the Kanmagur fishes are still found, Dagi Kan Magur is now extinct. There are also many types of fish; most of these fishes are almost in extinct condition.
In the Sundarbans, a fisherman uses 13 types of fishing techniques. However, poisoning is the biggest harm to fish. Most of the locals here are living in fish.
These forests play a very resistant and productive role. Sundarban is the fifty-one percent of total reserve forest in Bangladesh.41% of total income comes from it and it has 45 percent of the contribution of timber and fuel production (World Food Agency, 1995).
Many industries (such as Newsprint, Firebox, Hardboard, Boat, and Furniture) are dependent on raw materials derived from this mangrove forest. Various non-wood resources and forestry created significant opportunities for employment and income opportunities for at least three lakh coastal populations. Alongside the productive role, the Sundarban also play a part in the cyclone-prone Bangladesh's coastal people and the inherent security of their property.
Thousands of people come from outside the country watching the Sundarbans every year, and we are not able to preserve our precious wealth properly. Especially our nation's government should strengthen and harness forest protection and wildlife protection laws.
Attractive places to visit: Kotka and Kanchikhali Sanctuary center, located at the Tiger Point of Sharonkhola Range in the eastern part of the Sundarbans, the Karmzal wildlife and crocodile breeding centers near the port of Mongla, the Herbalia Ecotermis center, the Nilkamal sanctuary of Hiranpoints in the western division, the Mandarbariya sanctuary, crocodile breeding, sick deer care, thousands of years of old debris, and some of the beautiful scenes of nature can be enjoyed.
You can also see the monkeys, deer, crabs or crocodile trekking scenes to walk in the forest by walking a wooden walkway made from one to five kilometer in these spots. If there is fate in Tiger Point, Hiranpoint or Burigolini, Harbari, then the Royal Bengal Tiger can be seen. Few observation towers are available in these places.
Dublar Char: Many tourists visited the monsoon settlement of Fisherman Dublar Char, outside of the planned tour of the forest department. In winter, there is a scene of dried fish from the Bay of Bengal, and in the rainy season, you can see catching Hilsha fish. Every year, on the island, Rashmella is sitting on the full moon of Kartik-Agrahayana.
Kotka: This is one of the beautiful areas of the Sundarban. It is the best place to watch deer. And wherever there is food, the tigers in the hope of eating. If you are lucky enough, can see tigers here. Kotka is150 km away from Khulna city and 100 kilometers south of Mongla.
Kochikhali: Kochikhali is the best destination for those who are attracted by the sea. It can be carried out on the shore or boat in the direction of 14 kilometers east of Kotka. The main attraction here is pollution free sea. Along with the night, the fireworks, galaxies etc. And at the same time, the feeling of rotating in the boat is another. Deer, crocodiles, monkeys, and tigers are one of the attractions here.
Mandarbariya: Mandarbariya is an isolated island in the south-west corner of the Sundarbans. From Dublar Char or Nilkomol, it is very easy to get here by the waterways. Being an isolated island, solitude is one of the features here. Tortoises are laid eggs here at night. Irrabati dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, pistachios, king cobras, king crabs and other crabs.
Karamajal: Karamjal is one of the main ways to enter the Sundarbans. Only 45 minute's waterway from Mongla port. For those who do not have time, it is one of the good spots for them because at half an hour you will get an idea about the entire Sundarban.
Harberia: If you can get out from Mongla by Rupsha River in the very early morning, then you can visit the Harberia Forest Station in the daytime. The maximum cost will be six thousand Taka. Deer and monkeys will be seen in the team. Maya deer can be seen if you are lucky. And there are many species of birds. Apart from this, three new sanctuaries have been announced recently to protect Shushuk, Irabati Dolphin, Kalikaitta Turtle, Kalamukh Parapakhi and water fishing cat.
Visiting Cost: After the three days journey from the Sundarbans packages to the ship, the cost of the launches, fuel, food, snacks, government side of everyone, revenues, guides, a gunman, small boats roaming in the forest, and all other costs are included in the return. Here are the possible values mentioned in Khulna or Mongla. BDT 6000-8000 is enough for a single person in a medium type of tour in Sundarban.